Model Instance Title:
West Bank Mountain Aquifer  
Model Instance Short Name:
West Bank  
Assessment of recharge in a structurally complex upland karst limestone aquifer situated in a semi-arid environment is difficult. Resort to surrogate indicators such as measurement of spring outflow and borehole discharge, is a common alternative, and attempts to apply conventional soil moisture deficit analysis may not adequately account for the intermittent spate conditions that arise in such environments. A modelling approach has been made using the West Bank Mountain Aquifer system in the Middle East as a trial. The model, ZOODRM, uses object oriented software which allows various objects to be switched on and off. Each of the main recharge processes identified in the West Bank is incorporated. The model allows either conventional soil moisture deficit analysis calculations or wetting threshold calculations to be made as appropriate, and accommodates both direct recharge and secondary recharge. Daily time steps enable recharge and runoff routing to be calculated for each node. Model runs have enabled a series of simulations for each of the three aquifer basins in the West Bank and for the whole of the West Bank. These provide recharge estimates comparable to those prepared by earlier workers by conventional means  
Creation/Publication Date:
Hazards Floods   
Contact Details:
Andrew Hughes   British Geological Survey   UK  
Model Code Name:
Time Interval Covered:
from: 01-Jan-1990   to: 31-Dec-1997
Spatial Extent:
Bounding Box (Lat/Long WGS84):
West: 34.22   East: 39.3   South: 29.19   North: 33.38  
Scope of Vertical Extent: Superficial  
Vertical Extent (metres above OD) Maximum: 1500   Minimum: 0    
Spatial Reference Systems of Datasets:
Horizontal Reference System: Grid coordinates in undefined system
Vertical Datum: mean sea level height
Vertical Units: metre
Grid Resolution:
Spacing XSpacing YSpacing ZCells XCells YCells Z
400   400     200   330    

Time step interval: day   Time step value: 1
Additional information (science questions addressed, assumptions etc.):
Science Question   What is the sustainable resource of the West Bank Mountain Aquifer, west Bank, Palestine?  
Initial Condition   None Specified  
Input Dataset NameVersionURL LinkParameterValueUnits
Rainfall grids provided by Newcastle University (Kilsby et al., 2005);          
PE from PWA          
DEM from PWA          
Land use from Arij “”;          
runoff coefficients based on geological outcrops (PWA-BGS Hydro Map);          
Irrigation Losses          
Loses from Reticulation          
Output Dataset NameVersionURL LinkParameterValueUnits
Long-term average recharge          
Wadi flows          
Documents and Published Papers available for this model instance:
Hughes, A.G.; Mansour, M.M.; Robins, N.S   Evaluation of distributed recharge in an upland semi-arid karst system : the West Bank Mountain Aquifer, Middle East   2008